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Personnel Radiation Monitoring Services (FAQ)

1 What is TLD and what is a TLD badge ?

Thermoluminescent (TL) means emitting light when heated. We can briefly describe the mechanism of TL as follow:

When a strong energy source (such as ionizing radiation) hits a TL material, electrons are freed from some atoms and moved to other parts of the material, leaving behind "holes" of positive charge. Subsequently when the TL material is heated, the electrons and the "holes" re-combine, and release the extra energy in the form of light. The light intensity can be measured, and related to the amount of energy initially absorbed through exposure to theenergy source.

TLD badges are used to detect radiation at levels that can be harmful to humans. They emit light in amounts proportional to the radiation received. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are made from materials that measure cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation. They are worn for periods of approximately three months and are then processed to determine the dosage of radiation detected. TLD badges are logged to maintain cumulative records of an individual’s exposure to radiation over an extended period of time.

TLD badges include several types of thermoluminescent dosimeters, devices that can measure doses as low as millirem.

2 What is meant by Personnel Monitoring Service?

The term Personnel monitoring means, monitoring of the radiation workers with respect to absorbed dose in the body while working in the radiation field.

3 Why Personnel monitoring is required?
  • To obtain an assessment of the effective dose and where appropriate, the equivalent dose in significantly exposed tissues, so as to demonstrate compliance with managerial regulatory requirements.
  • To contribute to the control of operation & design of facilities.
  • In case of accidental overexposure, to provide valuable information for the support of appropriate health treatment.   
4 How to start Personnel Radiation Monitoring Service (PMS)

There is two forms, ( PMS-1 ) and other is ( PDF-2 )

(PMS-1 ) form for registration of Centre & form for registration of radiation personnel under the Centre. To start Personnal Radiation Monitoring Service PMS, first download the ( PMS–1 ) & ( PDF–2 ) forms.

For ( PMS-1 ) form,fill all details of your Centre such as name, address, phone number, pin code, email address. Fill in details of radiation installation such as make, model, radio-isotope, activity, installation, and in the endkindly affix stamp of your centre & signature of Head of centre.

For form fill all detail of radiation personnel such as name of address of present organization where he/she is working, full nameof radiation personnel, Date of birth, Birthplace, qualification, nature of work of radiation personnel. Make sure that on the form, the radiation workers signature along with details and signature of Radiation Safety Officer& Head of the institution are done.

Kindly note that incomplete forms will be rejected.

Also attach photos and zerox copy of photo ID for each PDF-2 form.

Depending on the number of Radiation personnel to be monitored, attach a AT PAR cheque or Demand draft in favour of RENENTECH LABORATORIES PVT LTD payable at Mumbai.Payment table is attached for your reference.

Your payment amount includes charges for one control card which will be sent to you everytime along with your personnel TLD cards. Control measures the background radiation of your Centre.For more info on control card, kindly refer to FAQ 15

Dispatch all the forms duly completed with photos and Xerox copy of ID proof.

As soon as we receive the application forms, we will dispatch them to BARC for approvals which normally takes 10 working days.

As soon as BARCapproval for your Centre and radiation personnelis received, we will start theirPersonnel Radiation Monitoring Service by dispatching the TLD Badges by Courier or Postal Registered Post as applicable.

Make sure to please read the User Instruction Manual (accompanied by TLD badges) and inform & train your radiation personnel regarding the step and proceduresfor using the TLD badges. (A copy of User instruction Manual can be downloaded along with the TLD application forms)

5 Can I start Personnel Radiation Monitoring Service ( PMS ) in any month?

Yes, but there is two type of service monthly & quarterly depending upon type of installation.In Quarterly basis, there is four service periodsJan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep & Oct-Dec. In quarterly basis service u can start service in between service period but you can use the TLD badges only till the end of the service quarter and payment will be forwhole quarter. i.efor Jan-mar period, you can start service in Jan or Feb or March also

6 When will we get new service period cards after starting PMS?

Normally the TLD cards for use during a particular period will be sent in advance so as to reach the user institution during the last week of preceeding month. In case the TLD cards are not received within 5 days of the commencement of the service period or there is any discrepancy in thereceipt of the materials, the same should be intimated to us immediately.

7 We have a Digital X-ray Machine. We were told by the salesman that we would not need radiation badges anymore. Is this true?

While Digital X-ray Machines are safer than traditional x-ray machines, in terms of continues retake, as single radiograph is sufficient, even if image is not proper it can be manipulated using digital technology. Digital x-rays use radiation to cast an image on the digital detector. Although the typical digital imaging unit can create an image using less radiation, but the radiation is not so less that the person need not be monitored. Some studies have shown an increase in exposure to patients and staff for a variety of reasons.

Although the energy required to produced digital radiography is less, but due to the previous tendency of traditional x-ray, high exposure are given which cause high dose to patient and staff which need to be monitored, also digital x-ray never reduced the chance of accidents.

8 Why is control card along with the personnel card required? 

We are basically concerned about the Personnel Monitoring service i.e. the dose absorbed by the radiation personnel while working in the radiation field. As you are aware,there is some radiation which are occurring naturally & which contribute to both general public & radiation worker.A TLD card can not differentiate between radiation field’s radiation & natural background radiation. Hence, to find the contribution of radiation field’s radiation in the absorbed dose by radiation worker, contribution due to the natural background has to be subtracted. Therefore, a control card is required to note down the contribution due to the natural background.

9 How to wear the TLD Badges?

The TLD badge should be worn on the body trunk with the name label facing towards outwards i.e. the side with sliding window should face towards yourselffor properly measuring the radiation dose absorbed byyou. We recommend you to wear the TLD Badge under the lead apron for estimating the dose of the major part of your body.

10 How to return the TLD badges after use?

You can return TLD cards by registered post or courier in plastic box and in cloth laid envelope. Please note that the user will be responsible to any loss of the TLD cards in transit.

11 Where to store the TLD badges after daily use?

The user should store their TLD badges away from the RADIATION AREA after work. We recommend users to keep their own TLD badges in a secure place under lock and key away from RADIATION AREA

12 Can we use the TLD badge of person who has left for a new person?

No, the person who has left your institution has to return his TLD holder and holder back to us along with the letter for cancellation. And for new person you have to send us a duly filled in PDF-2 form for BARC approval. After receiving approval form BARC we can start his service.

13 Can I use the same TLD badge for two or more different Radiation Installations?

No, you have to apply for different TLD badge for twoor more different Installations.

14 What can I do if my TLD badges is lost?

The users should report to us in writing by mail or email immediately mentioning the service period for which the TLD badges is lost. Also it should be clearly mention whether the card or holder or both the card and holder has been lost. The same will charged in the Final bill @ Rs.125 for card and Rs.70 for holder.

15 What is the whole body dose & extremity dose? 

Exposure to radiation can be either to the whole body (uniform irradiation) or to individual organs of the body (non uniform irradiation). Radio sensitivity of different tissues in human body is different. Also, the effect of radiation exposure of individual tissues contributes differently to the total health of the exposed person. A chest TLD badge can take care of the whole body dose as while working maximum exposed portion of body is upper half portion of the body.The extremity portion of our body is our hands as they can move away from the body & hence to measure the extremity dose, a wrist badge can be used.

16 What are the dose limits for occupational radiation worker, pregnant radiation worker & general public? 
Ans Dose limits Recommended by ICRP (I.C.R.P. 60 – 1990) 


Dose limit


General public

Whole body:
(Effective Dose)
20mSv per year, averaged over defined period of 5 years, with no more than 50mSv in a single year. ( 30mSv only as per AERB (India)directive. 1mSv in a year, averaged over 5 years
Parts of the body:
(equivalent dose)
Lens of the eye
Hands & Feet
150mSv per year
500msv per year
500msv per year
15mSv in a year
50mSv in a year

The basis for the control of occupational exposure of women who are not pregnant is the same as that for men & the commission recommends no special dose limits for women in general. However, once pregnancy is declared, the Foetus should be protected by applying a supplementary equivalent dose limit of 2mSv,to the surface of the women’s abdomen (lower trunk) for the entire period of pregnancy and by limiting the intakes of radionuclide to about 1/20 of ALI ( Annual Limits on intake), since the Foetus is considered as a member of general public.

17 Where is the badge used in case of use of any protectionary measures such as lead apron? 

In case of use of lead apron, the badge should be worn inside the lead apron on chest level as the absorbed dose has to be estimated after the use of protectionary measures.

18 How to access the monthly/Quarter dose report?

We send the hard copy of dose report to the contact person of a company with the new batch of dosimeters every month /Quarter.Also the soft copy of the dose reports are sent by email to the contact person.Yearly and Five Yearly dose report are sent by National Occupational Dose Registry Group (NODRS), Radiological Physics and Advisory Division ( RPAD ), BARC, Mumbai.

19 Is it compulsory to use TLD card even when the reported dose value is zero? 

Yes, because reported dose value is zero that does not mean readings detected from the TLD card is zero. Instead that means dose estimated is below the reporting valuefor X ray ( X ) < 0.05mSv, for beta ( β) < 0.5mSv & for Gamma (γ ) < 0.10mSvwhich are mentioned in the dose report. Also, to meet the requirements of the Personnel monitoring service (as mentioned earlier) it is compulsory to use TLD cards.

20 What is meant by over exposure?

Over exposure means the radiation personnel is exposed to more exposure than the normal exposure. Some dose constraints have been put by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre ( BARC ), Mumbai & Atomic Energy Regulatory Board ( AERB ), Mumbai, the absorbed dose beyond that is considered to be the over exposure.The limit for over exposure for whole body is 10mSv (for the X ray & Gamma radiation) & for the extremity is 250mSv in a single service period. The over exposure is shown as *** in the Dose Report for that particular service period.

21 What exactly am I paying for my Annual TLD Badge service charges?
Ans Charges include all activities associated with determining a personnel/area's exposure to radiation. This includes the use of a TLD badge, all shipping to send the badge to you, all activities associated with producing and delivering a dose report to you in a timely fashion. The service charges does not purchase of TLD badge itself. It remains the property of Renentech Laboratories Pvt ltd, Mumbai.,and failure to return the badge to us in a timely manner may result in a Lost Badge Charge.

22 Is on-call service available in the case of an emergency?

Between the hours 9am to 6pm, Monday to Saturday